Greco: the end of money (2)

The end of money

De investeringsbeslissing

We maken het model nog een stapje ingewikkelder. De noten kunnen niet alleen bewaard worden, ze kunnen ook worden ingezet om een stuk gereedschap van te maken. Nu kun je met de noten dus drie verschillende dingen doen: je kunt ze meteen opeten, je kunt ze gewoon bewaren (laten liggen, sparen) of je kunt ze bewerken om er gereedschap van te maken. Nu kan Robinson niet alleen sparen, hij kan ook investeren. Waarom zou Robinson investeren? Het idee is dat als je nu noten gebruikt om er gereedschap van te maken, dat je dan in de toekomst met minder tijd meer noten kunt rapen of plukken. Je maakt van de noten bijvoorbeeld stokken of scheppen die je arbeidsproductiviteit in de toekomst vergroten. Ook bij een stationaire groei (of nulgroei) zul je moeten blijven investeren omdat machines en apparatuur verslijt en/of onderhoud behoeft.

Investeren zal Robinson alleen maar doen als hij daar een positief rendement van verwacht. De tijd die hij nu nodig heeft om het gereedschap te maken moet meer dan goed worden gemaakt door de tijd die hij in de toekomst uit kan sparen door snellere pluk of vangst. De verhouding tussen toekomstig bespaarde tijd versus nu extra benodigde tijd zouden we hier de reële rentevoet kunnen noemen. Hoe hoger deze rentevoet hoe meer Robinson geneigd is nu minder te consumeren en meer tijd te stoppen in de productie van ‘machines’. Let op: ook bij een eenpersoonseconomie kan dus sprake zijn van een rentevoet (hebben we later nodig bij de behandeling van Greco). Maar de voordelen van de rente komen geheel en al ten goede aan Robinson zelf, het is zijn extra inspanning in het heden versus zijn eigen beloning in de toekomst.

Impliciet zitten in bovenstaande modellen nog twee vooronderstellingen verscholen. Robinson houdt van vrije tijd. Het omgekeerde daarvan betekent dat hij arbeid niet leuk vindt (want het gaat ten koste van vrije tijd). Arbeid vindt alleen plaats als daar een beloning tegenover staat. Die beloning noemde ik hierboven in deel (1) de reële loonvoet. Verder vindt Robinson consumptie in het heden fijner dan consumptie in de toekomst. Er zit iets achter van: je kunt het maar beter gehad hebben, ik leef in het nu en hoe het in de toekomst is moet je nog maar afwachten. In economentaal wordt dat tijdsvoorkeur genoemd. Robinson is alleen bereid huidige consumptie uit te stellen als daar in de toekomst een vergoeding tegenover staat. Als Robinson, alle overige omstandigheden gelijk, moet kiezen tussen dezelfde hoeveelheid consumptie nu of in de toekomst, kiest hij dus voor de consumptie nu. Sparen en investeren zijn allebei vormen van uitgestelde consumptie. In het voorbeeld van hierboven spaart Robinson alleen omdat hij wel moet (onzekere oogst of niet in staat te werken) en investeert hij omdat hij daar een positieve beloning voor terug verwacht. De positieve beloning van investeren noemden we hierboven de reële rentevoet. In economische termen: Robinson zal alleen investeren als het verwachte rendement op de investering hoger is dan zijn tijdsvoorkeur.

Merk tenslotte op dat sparen en investeren hier niet gelijk aan elkaar hoeven te zijn. Robinson kan sparen en investeren tegelijk, het zijn afzonderlijke overwegingen, ze zijn niet per se op elk moment aan elkaar gekoppeld (hoewel ze over een langere periode wel weer met elkaar in verband staan, maar dat gaat voor nu te ver om uit te werken).

In deze economie is geen geld aanwezig en ook geen schuldpapieren. Het zijn alleen goederen die de klok slaan. Geld en schuld heeft pas zin als er sprake is van meerdere personen die met elkaar iets kunnen uitruilen. Deel 3 gaat verder met een economie waarin meerdere personen goederen met elkaar kunnen ruilen.

Enkele conclusies (met het oog op vervolg naar Greco):

  • Rente of rendement is niet iets wat banken hebben uitgevonden
  • Maar een normaal mechanisme om beslissingen in de tijd optimaal in te kunnen richten
  • Rente heeft op zich niet zoveel met geld te maken, rente kan ook thuis horen in een pure goederen economie
  • Rente of rendement kan in bijzondere gevallen ook negatief zijn
  • Ook bij nulgroei van een economie moet er geïnvesteerd worden om te compenseren voor slijtage (vervangingsinvesteringen)
  • Rente en groei zijn dus geen zaken die inherent leiden tot een onhoudbare of instabiele situatie (met alsmaar toenemende schuldenlasten etc)
  • Budget constraints (in de tijd) spelen een grote rol bij het brengen van evenwicht of het voorkomen van instabiliteit: je kunt of mag over een heel leven niet meer opmaken dan je in totaliteit verdient (of je nu een individu bent of een land)
  • Crusoë is een mooie metafoor voor duurzaamheid: afwentelen naar een ander of in de tijd is simpelweg niet mogelijk, Crusoë krijgt de consquenties van zijn eigen daden onherroepelijk voor zijn eigen kiezen

Wordt vervolgd

Rudy van Stratum

 

 

Geplaatst in Financieringsconstructies, Literatuur, Opinie.

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